Neuropathic pain can be caused by central or peripheral nervous system nerve damage or injury.
Some persons with chronic pain report numbness and tingling, while others experience a searing, burning sensation.
Injury or illness can kill nerve fibers, interfering with the transmission of pain signals to and from other parts of the body.
Existing signals may be misunderstood as a result of neuropathic pain. Create new signals or block the transmission of current signals. Even non-pain signals can occasionally be made unpleasant. These difficulties might result in a variety of mild to severe unpleasant symptoms.
As a result of neurological malfunction, people’s sensations of touch, warmth, motion, and pressure may alter.
This page describes neuropathic pain’s causes, symptoms, and treatment options.
What Causes Neuropathic Pain?
A person with peripheral neuropathy may have discomfort in their limbs.
Numerous medical problems can result in nerve damage and neuropathic pain. Here are two more examples:
Diabetes, cancer, and cancer therapies such as chemotherapy, neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS), and neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, and stroke are examples of chronic diseases. The disorders include shingles, HIV, leprosy, and Guillain-Barré syndrome.
An injury can result in tissue and nerve damage as well as considerable nerve strain. This can occur after surgery or due to catastrophic events such as spinal cord injury.
Certain infections, such as herpes zoster, can result in nerve damage and neuropathic pain.
Additionally, excessive alcohol consumption might result in neuropathy. This could be because alcohol causes both nutritional deficits and neurotoxicity.
Certain drugs can occasionally induce neuropathy, but in some instances, there is no evident explanation.
There are a variety of neuropathic pain types
Different nerves and bodily parts are impacted differently by neuropathy.
Multiple mono neuropathy refers to the injury of two or more nerves in separate locations, whereas mono neuropathy refers to the damage of a single nerve.
The most prevalent cause of polyneuropathy is injury to many nerves.
Following are descriptions of numerous forms of neuropathy and the portions of the body they typically affect.
Damaged nerves in the extremities
Peripheral neuropathy is a form of nerve damage that affects the peripheral nerves of the nervous system. It is the responsibility of the peripheral nervous system to transport information from the brain to the rest of the body.
Peripheral neuropathy can cause damage to the extremities of the body, including the feet, legs, arms, and hands.
Autonomic dysfunction produces neuropathy
Autonomic neuropathy is a neurological disorder that affects the nerves that regulate internal organs and critical activities, such as digestion and respiration.
- Heart, blood pressure, and digestion can all be affected by autonomic neuropathy.
- Neuropathy with a particular emphasis
- Focal neuropathy is characterised by a single nerve damage at one of the following body sites:
- The head and the hands
- Extremities and Torsos
The condition known as Bell’s palsy is a form of neuropathy. This condition produces facial paralysis or weakness on one side.
Focal neuropathy can cause double vision, sudden weakness or pain in the front of the thigh, and other symptoms.
Proximal neuropathy is an uncommon kind of persistent nerve damage. This form of nerve damage typically affects only one side of the body, including the hip, buttock, or thigh.
Proximal neuropathy can cause excruciating pain, trouble moving, muscle and weight loss, and other symptoms.
Neuropathy due to diabetes
Diabetes boosts the body’s blood sugar levels. This could potentially cause damage to the blood arteries that carry oxygen and nutrients to the neurons.
A deficiency of oxygen and nourishment hinders normal nerve function.
Diabetic neuropathy can involve any of the aforementioned forms of neuropathy, but peripheral neuropathy affects up to fifty percent of diabetic patients.
Compression A compression injury or a blood vessel infection can induce mononeuropathy, a type of nerve damage. Blood vessel constriction can limit the nerves’ blood flow, so impairing their function.
Accidents or recurring tension on a nerve as it traverses a joint or a constricted channel in the body can cause nerve compression.
Carpal tunnel syndrome, which is caused by compression of the median nerve at the wrist, is the most prevalent example.
It is possible to have tingling, numbness, or swelling in the fingers, especially when using the hands or sleeping.
Phantom limb syndrome is a classification of neuropathy. A person who has lost a limb may experience both physical and psychological suffering. The pain may be scorching, shooting, or prickling.
About 80% of amputation victims suffer from phantom limb syndrome. Phantom limb syndrome can be triggered by a miscommunication between the brain and spinal cord.
Typically, symptoms disappear six months following surgery, but they may persist for years.
Compression or injury to the trigeminal nerve in the head can result in trigeminal neuralgia. The trigeminal nerve can be compromised by a stroke, multiple sclerosis, or facial surgery.
This form of neuropathy can cause excruciating facial pain. Ordinary actions such as tooth brushing and face washing might be painful.
Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a zoster symptom. PHN can affect portions of the body previously affected by chickenpox.
PHN, which affects 10% to 18% of patients with zoster, is more prevalent among the elderly.
Radiculopathy of the thoracic or lumbar spine (thoracic or lumbar)
Thoracic or lumbar radiculopathy is a kind of mononeuropathy that affects one or both sides of the chest or abdominal wall.
This form of neuropathy is more likely to develop in patients with type 2 diabetes. They typically recover naturally over time.
- Excruciating pain with a shooting, throbbing, or burning sensation
- Sensations of tingling or “pins and needles”;
- Impaired perceptions, such as trouble recognising temperature; Itching caused by skin that is mottled or red
Patients with neuropathic pain may develop a hypersensitivity to touch. A minor amount of friction or pressure on the garment, as well as a mild touch, can cause discomfort and pain to the nerves.
Chronic pain can impede daily activities and diminish a person’s quality of life. Among the negative symptoms of neuropathic pain are inability to sleep owing to discomfort, depression, and worry.
Certain neuropathy symptoms will diminish with time. Treatment or management of the underlying cause may aid in alleviating the symptoms of neuropathy.
Patients with persistent neuropathic pain may need treatment to alleviate debilitating or incapacitating symptoms.
Medications containing Pregabalin 100 mg of are routinely used to alleviate neuropathy pain.
Generic Lyrica is an additional drug that may be used to treat nerve discomfort.
Common treatments include patch lidocaine injections or nerve blocks combining steroids, opioids, and anaesthetics.
A physician may also suggest transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) treatment. Through an electrode attached to the skin, a TENS machine transmits a mild electrical impulse to the painful location.
The impulse may excite certain nerves while suppressing pain signals. This can aid in muscular relaxation and pain reduction.
If a TENS machine fails to relieve pain, consider utilising percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (PENS). In PENS and TENS, the electrode is placed beneath the skin rather than on the surface with a needle.
Acupuncture may help some individuals with neuropathic pain
This may activate the neurological system and promote healing, resulting in pain relief.
Surgery can aid in the treatment of serious nerve injuries, such as compression mononeuropathy.
Last but not least, nerve injury or loss can cause neuropathic pain. Symptoms can range in severity from moderate to severe.
Symptoms include burning or shooting pain, tingling, numbness, and loss of sensation.
Medications for discomfort, electric stimulation, and in certain circumstances surgery are available as treatment options.
Some types of neuropathic pain improve or vanish with time, while others require long-term pain care.